WWW PICES
Report 44 (August 2013)

Report of Working Group 24 on Environmental Interactions of Marine Aquaculture

   
  Full report [pdf, 2 Mb] (Right-click and choose "Save Target As..." to save it on your computer)
   
  Acknowledgements vii
  Abbreviations and Acronyms ix
  Executive Summary xiii
     
  1. Assessing Environmental Interactions of Marine Aquaculture: A Review of Long- and Short-Term, Nearand Far-Field Effects of Marine Aquaculture on Benthic Communities, Including Chemical and Physical Changes, and Rates of Ecosystem Recovery in PICES Member Countries 1
    1.1 Overview 1
    1.2 Canada 2
      1.2.1 Overview 2
      1.2.2 Fish Culture 2
      1.2.3 Shellfish Culture 6
      1.2.4 Marine Algae Culture 7
      1.2.5 Polyculture/Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture 7
      1.2.6 Discussion, Analysis, and Recommendations 8
      1.2.7 References 8
    1.3 Japan
10
      1.3.1 Overview 10
      1.3.2 Fish Culture 10
      1.3.3 Shellfish Culture 11
      1.3.4 Marine Algae Culture 13
      1.3.5 Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture 13
      1.3.6 Conclusions and Recommendations 14
      1.3.7 References 14
    1.4 Republic of Korea 17
      1.4.1 Overview 17
      1.4.2 Fish Culture 19
      1.4.3 Shellfish Culture 21
      1.4.4 Marine Algae Culture 21
      1.4.5 Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture 22
      1.4.6 Conclusions 22
      1.4.7 References 23
    1.5 Russia 25
      1.5.1 Overview 25
      1.5.2 Fish Culture 25
      1.5.3 Shellfish Culture 25
      1.5.4 References 27
    1.6 United States of America 28
      1.6.1 Overview 28
      1.6.2 Fish Culture 28
      1.6.3 Shellfish Culture 31
      1.6.4 Marine Algae Culture 35
      1.6.5 Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture 35
      1.6.6 Conclusions and Recommendations 36
           
  2. Marine Aquaculture Legislative Frameworks and Environmental Interactions Research in PICES Member Countries 41
    2.1 Overview 41
    2.2 Canada 41
      2.2.1 Legislative Framework for Risk Assessment of Aquaculture 41
      2.2.2 Research to Support Sustainable Aquaculture 44
    2.3 Japan 45
      2.3.1 Legislative Framework for Risk Assessment of Aquaculture 45
      2.3.2 Current Status of Research on Environmental Assessment of Aquaculture 47
      2.3.3 References 48
    2.4 Republic of Korea 50
      2.4.1 Legislative Framework for Risk Assessment of Aquaculture 50
    2.5 Russia 53
      2.5.1 Legislative Framework for Risk Assessment of Aquaculture 53
      2.5.2 Research to Support Sustainable Aquaculture 53
      2.5.3 References 54
    2.6 United States of America 55
        Legislative Framework for Risk Assessment of Aquaculture 55
        Current Status of Research on Environmental Assessment of Aquaculture 56
        References 59
           
  3. Pathogens of Aquatic Animals: Detection, Diagnosis and Risks of Interactions between Wild and Farmed Populations in PICES Member Countries 63
    3.1 Overview 63
    3.2 Canada 63
      3.2.1 Pathogens of Importance to Wild and Cultured Aquatic Animals in Canada 63
      3.2.2 Regulations/Rules Regarding Aquatic Animal Health 65
      3.2.3 National and/or Regional Programs Related to the Diagnosis and Control of Diseases of
Aquatic Animals
65
      3.2.4 Methods Used for the Identification and Detection of Pathogens of Concern 66
      3.2.5 Canadian National Reference Laboratories 67
      3.2.6 Perceived or Realized Risks Associated with the Transfer of Pathogens between Wild and
Farmed Hosts
68
      3.2.7 Conclusions 69
    3.3 Japan 70
      3.3.1 Current State of Fish Diseases in Japan 70
      3.3.2 National Regulation Framework for Fish Disease Control in Japan 70
      3.3.3 System of Diagnosis and Control of Aquatic Animal Disease Occurrences in Japan 73
      3.3.4 Establishment and Dissemination of Diagnostic Methods 74
      3.3.5 Case Studies of Aquatic Animal Diseases between Wild and Cultured Populations 74
      3.3.6 References 75
    3.4 Republic of Korea 76
      3.4.1 Status of Fish Diseases in Korea 76
      3.4.2 System of Diagnosis and Control of Aquatic Animals 77
      3.4.3 Fish Vaccine Development in Korea 77
      3.4.4 Monitoring of Wild Marine Fish in Korea 78
      3.4.5 National Regulation for Control of Aquatic Animal Diseases 79
      3.4.6 Bibliography 80
    3.5 Russia 82
      3.5.1 Regulatory Framework for Aquatic Organisms Health in Russia 82
      3.5.2 Aquatic Animal Diseases in Russia 82
      3.5.3 Conclusion 83
    3.6 United States of America 84
      3.6.1 Regulatory Framework for Fish Health in the United States 84
      3.6.2 Laboratory Diagnostics 85
      3.6.3 Current State of Fish Diseases in the United States 85
      3.6.4 Disease Interactions between Wild and Farmed Fish 86
       
  4. Summary and Recommendations 89
           
  Appendix 1 WG 24 Terms of Reference 91
  Appendix 2 WG 24 Membership 92
  Appendix 3 WG 24 Annual Reports and Topic Session/Workshop Summaries 95
  Appendix 4 PICES Press Article 120
       
 
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